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A A A A AA siteA Tour of the CellAbiotic componentABO blood groupAbsolute datingAcetyl CoAAcids, nucleicAcoelomatesAcrasiomycotaActinActinopterygii, subclassAction of natural selectionActivation energyActivation, mRNAActivation, proteinActivatorsActive siteActive transportActive versus passive transportActivity, enzymeAdapt, why?AdaptationAdaptationAdaptationAdaptations, terrestrial, plantsAdaptive landscapesAdaptive radiationAdaptive radiation and mass extinctionAdaptive zoneAddition, law ofAdditional mechanisms of catalysisAdenineAdenosine diphosphateAdenosine monophosphateAdenosine triphosphateAdhesionADPAdvantage, heterozygousAerobes, obligateAerobic respirators, protists are mostlyAerobic respirators, protists are mostlyAge structureAgent, oxidizingAgent, reducingAgnatha, classAgonistic behaviorAlelle frequencies, calculatingAlgal life cyclesAlleleAllele frequencies from genotype frequencies, calculating themAllele, fixedAllele, homologousAlleles, complete dominanceAlleles, dominantAlleles, dominant, homozygousAlleles, incomplete dominanceAlleles, multipleAlleles, recessiveAlleles, recessive, homozygousAlleles, segregation ofAllocation of limited resourcesAllocation, principle ofAllopatric speciationAllopatric speciation, scenario forAllopolyploidAllosteric inhibitorsAlpha helixAlternation of generationsAlternation of generationsAltruismAltruism, reciprocalAlveolata, KingdomAmino acidsAmino groupAminoacyl-tRNA-synthetasesAmmonificationAmniotesAmniotic eggAmoebasAmoebocyteAMPAMP, cyclicAmphibia, classAmphibiansAmphipathicAmplification, signalAmylopectinAmyloseAn Introduction to Ecology and the BiosphereAn Introduction to MetabolismAnabolismAnaerobes, facultativeAnaerobes, facultativeAnaerobes, obligateAnaerobic generation of ATPAnagenesisAnalysis of cloned DNAAnaphaseAnaphase IAnatomy, comparativeAncestor, universalAneuploidyAngiospermsAngiosperms, life cycle ofAnimal cells and tonicityAnimal defenses against predationAnimal Evolution, Introduction toAnimalsAnisogamyAnnelida, phylumAnteriorAntherAntheridiumAntheridiumAnthophyta, divisionAnthropoidea, suborderAnticodonAntiparallel strandsApicomplexaAposematic colorationApparatus, GolgiAppendages, jointedAquatic producers, protists are importantAquatic, protists are mostlyAqueous solutionArchaebacteria metabolismArchegoniumArchenteronArchezoaArchezoa, KingdomArthropoda, phylumArtificial selectionAsciAscocarpAscogoniumAscomycota fruiting bodiesAscomycota gametangiaAscomycota, DivisionAscosporesAsexual reproductionAssimilation, nitrogenAssociative learningAssortative matingAssortment, independentAssortment, independentAsterAsymetry, membraneAtmosphere, reducingATPATP Bookkeeping (cellular respiration)ATP catabolismATP generation, anaerobicATP hydrolysisATP is a product of catabolismATP synthaseATP works, howAttachments to plasma membraneAUGAustralopithecinesAustralopithecus, genusAutopolyploidyAutosomal dominant traitsAutosomal recessive traitsAutosomeAutotrophAutotrophsAvailability to RNA polymeraseAvery, MacLeod, and McCarty, 1944Aves, classAvoidance of punishment

B B B B BBacillariophytaBacteria mutationBacteria sexBacteria, Gram-negativeBacterial growthBacteriophageBalanced polymorphismsBarnaclesBarr bodiesBarriers, breakdown ofBarriers, geographicalBarriers, prezygotic reproductiveBarriers, reproductiveBase pairingBase sequenceBases, nitrogenousBasidiaBasidiocarpBasidiomycota, divisionBasis of life, mechanisticBatesian mimicryBehaviorBehavior, agonisticBehavior, cooperativeBehavior, matingBehavior, socialBehavioral biologyBehavioral ecologyBehavioral ecologyBehavioral isolationBehaviors, rhythmicBehaviors, timing and movingBenthicBeta-pleated sheetBilateriaBilateria versus radiataBilayer, lipidBinary fissionBioenergeticsBiogeochemical cyclesBiogeographyBiogeography, islandBiological order, hierarchy ofBiological species conceptBiological species concept, problems withBiology, behavioralBiology, Fifth EditionBiology, molecularBiomassBiomass pyramidBiomass, standing cropBiotechnologyBiotic componentBiotic potentialBipedalismBirdsBirth rateBivalvia, classBladeBlastoporeBlood group, ABOBlotting, SouthernBody cavitiesBonding, hydrogenBonds, chemicalBonds, chemical, representingBonds, covalentBonds, energy inBonds, hydrogenBonds, ionicBonds, noncovalentBonds, polar covalentBonds, weakBony fishBookkeeping, ATP, cellular respirationBottleneck effectBottleneck, geneticBound ribosomesBreakdown of barriersBreeding, trueBridges, disulfideBrown algaeBryophyta, divisionBuffer, pH

C C C C CCalculating allele frequenciesCalculating allele frequencies from genotype frequenciesCalculating for events not happeningCalculating genotype frequencies from allele frequenciesCalvin cycleCambrian explosioncAMPCampbell, Reece, Mitchell, 1999CAPCapacity, carryingCapsidCapsids and envelopesCapsomersCarbohydratesCarbonCarbon and oxygen cyclesCarbon and the Molecular Diversity of LifeCarbon cycleCarbon fixing (photosynthesis)Carbon, oxidation ofCarbon, oxidizedCarbonyl groupCarboxyl groupCarnivoreCarpelCarrying capacityCartilaginous fishCatabolismCatabolism, ATPCatabolism, product of (ATP)Catabolite activator proteinCatalysis, additional mechanisms ofCatalysis, enzyme-mediatedCatalytic siteCausation, proximateCausation, ultimateCavities, bodycDNACell CommunicationCell cycleCell Cycle, TheCell differentiationCell divisionCell divisionCell divison, control ofCell envelopesCell signaling, three stages ofCell wall, Gram-negativeCell wall, Gram-positiveCellsCells are smallCells, stemCellular respiration, overviewCellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical EnergyCellular slime moldsCelluloseCellulose, digestion ofCentipedesCentral dogma of molecular geneticsCentral dogma of molecular genetics, quickie lessonCentrioleCentromereCentrosomeCentrosomesCephalizationCephalizationCephalochordata, subphylumCephalopoda, classCephalothoraxChain reaction, polymeraseChaperone proteinsCharacterCharacter displacementCharacters, quantitativeChargaffChargaff's ruleCheliceriformes, subphylumChemical bondsChemical bonds, representingChemical Context of Life, TheChemical cyclingChemical disequilibriumChemical equilibriaChemical historyChemical signalingChemiosmosisChemistry for biologyChemoautotrophChemoheterotrophChemoheterotrophs, protists are mostlyChemotaxisChemotrophsChiasmaChiasmataChilopoda, classChimpanzeesChitinChlorophyllChlorophytaChloroplastChloroplast structure, reviewChoanocyteCholesterolChondrichthyes, classChordata, phylumChordate through tetrapod phylogenyChordatesChromatids, sisterChromatinChromatinChromistaChromista, kingdomChromosomal basis for Mendel's lawsChromosomal Basis of Inheritance, TheChromosomal rearrangementsChromosomeChromosomeChromosome numbers, human disorders involving changes inChromosomesChrysophytaCiliaCiliatesCiliophoraCirculatory system, closedCirculatory system, openCis and trans faces of the golgiCitric acid cycleCladeCladisticsCladogenesisCladogramClamsClassClass AgnathaClass AmphibiaClass AvesClass BivalviaClass CephalopodaClass ChilopodaClass ChondrichthyesClass DiplopodaClass GastropodaClass HirudineaClass InsectaClass MammaliaClass OligochaetaClass OsteichthyesClass PlacodermiClass PolychaetaClass ReptiliaClassical conditioningClassificationCleavage furrowClimax communityClone, indentification ofCloned DNA, analysis ofCloning DNACloning vectorCloning, geneClosed circulatory systemClub fungiCnidaria, phylumCodominanceCodon, startCodon, stopCodonsCodons are a property of mRNACodons don't overlapCodons, no punctuation betweenCodons, nonsenseCoefficient of relatednessCoelomatesCoenocyticCoenzymeCoevolutionCofactorCofactorsCohesionCollagenColonization of Land, Plant Diversity IColoration, aposematicColoration, crypticCommensalismCommensalismCommunication by direct contact between cellsCommunityCommunity EcologyCommunity ecologyCommunity, climaxComparative_anatomyComparative_embryologyCompartmentalizationCompetition, exploitativeCompetition, interferenceCompetition, interspecificCompetition, noneCompetitive exclusionCompetitive inhibitorsComplementarity, strandComplementarity, strandComplementary DNAComplete dominanceComplete metamorphosisComplex, enzyme-substrateComponent, abioticComponent, abioticCompounds, secondaryConcentration gradient, down theConcentration gradient, solvents moving down theCondensation reactionConditioning, classicalConditioning, operantConformation = functionConformersConidiaConiferophyta, divisionConjugationConservation BiologyConspecificsConsumer, primaryConsumer, secondaryConsumersConsumers, tertiaryContract, direct, communicationControl of cell divisionControl of gene expression in eukaryotes, an overviewControl of gene expression, transcriptionalControl of protein synthesis, negativeControl of protein synthesis, positiveControl, post-translationalCooling, evaporativeCooperative behaviorCooperativityCoral polypsCord, hollow, dorsal, nerverCorepressed operonCorepressorCotransportCoupling endergonic and exergonic reactionsCoupling movement toward chemical equilibrium and disequilibriumCoupling, EnergyCourtshipCovalent bondsCrabsCrayfishCristaeCritical periodCrop, biomass, standingCrossCross between homozygous dominant and homozygous recessiveCross, dihybridCross, monohybridCross, testCross, trihybrid (and higher)Cross: XAXA x XaYCross: XAXA x XaYCross: XAXA x XaYCross: XAXA x XaYCrossing overCrustacea, subphylumCryptic colorationCultural evolutionCultureCurves, survivorshipCuticle, waxyCyanobacteriaCycle, carbonCycle, cellCycle, Kreb'sCycle, nitrogenCycle, phosphorousCycles, biochemicalCyclic AMPCyclic electron flow (photosynthesis)Cycling, chemicalCysternaeCystsCytokinesisCytokinesis (1)Cytokinesis (2)CytoplasmCytoplasmic determinantsCytoplasmic inheritanceCytosineCytoskeletonCytosol

D D D D DDarwin, CharlesDarwinian FitnessDarwinism as the foundation of biologyDarwinism encompasses two ideas, one explaining the otherDarwinism, evidence ofDarwinism, logic ofDarwinism's historical contextDating fossilsDating, absoluteDating, relativeDeath rateDecomposersDefense against predationDefenses, mechanicalDeficiencies, nutritionalDegradation, mRNADegradation, proteinDehydration reactionDehydration synthesisDehydrogenaseDeletionDeletionDemographicsDenaturationDenitrificationDensity, populationDensity-dependent factorsDensity-independent factorsDeoxyribonucleic acidDescent with modificationDescent with Modification: A Darwinian View of LifeDeterminants, cytoplasmicDeterminationDeuterostome versus protostomeDevelopmentDeviation from expected ratiosDiatomsDicotsDicotyledonDifferentiationDifferentiation, cellDiffusionDiffusion, facilitatedDigesting celluloseDihybrid crossDikaryonDinoflagellataDinoflagellatesDiphosphate, adenosineDiploblasticDiploidyDiploidyDiplopoda, classDirect-contact communicationDirectional selectionDisaccharideDisease and prophageDisease and provirusDisease, infectiousDisease, microbialDisequilibrium, chemicalDisequilibrium, harnessing energy to move toward chemicalDispersion, patterns ofDisplacement, characterDisruptive selectionDisulfide bridgesDiversifying selectionDiversity of reproductive strategies, protists displayDiversity, morphological, prokaryoticDiversity, species and predationDivision AnthophytaDivision AscomycotaDivision BasidiomycotaDivision BryophytaDivision ConiferophytaDivision PterophytaDivision ZygomycotaDivision, cellDivision, cellDivision, cell, control ofDivisions, fungiDivisions, plantDNADNA cloningDNA ligaseDNA ligaseDNA polarity (5' to 3')DNA polymeraseDNA replication, semiconservativeDNA sequencingDNA synthesis: (5' to 3')DNA TechnologyDNA, complementaryDNA, recombinantDNA, structure ofDoes evolution fashion perfect organismsDomainDomainDomain, monophyletic = eukaryotesDomain, three, systemDominance hierarchiesDominance relationshipsDominance, completeDominance, incompleteDominant allelesDominant generation, sporophyte asDominant, homozygousDominant, sex-linked afflictionDorsalDorsal, hollow nerve cordDosage compensationDouble helixDown syndromeDown the concentration gradientDown the concentration gradient, solventsDrift, geneticDuplication

E E E E EE siteEarly Earth and the Origin of LifeEarthwormsEchidnasEchinodermata, phylumEcological efficiencyEcological nicheEcological species conceptEcological successionEcological succession, primaryEcological succession, secondaryEcologyEcology and the Biosphere, An Introduction toEcology, behavioralEcology, behavioralEcology, CommunityEcology, communityEcology, ecosystemEcology, Hierarchical study ofEcology, organismalEcology, PopulationEcology, populationEcology, populationEcosystemEcosystem ecologyEcosystemsEctodermEffect, bottleneckEffect, founderEfficiency, ecologicalEgg, amnioticEight-kingdom systemElectrochemical gradientElectron acceptor, finalElectron flow, cyclic (photosynthesis)Electron flow, non-cyclic (photosynthesis)Electron transport chainElectron transport systemElectronegativityElectrons store energyElectrons, valenceElements, essentialEletrophoresis, gelElongation (1)Elongation (2)Embryology, comparativeEmergent propertiesEnantiomersEndergonic and exergonic reactions, couplingEndergonic reactionEndocytosisEndocytosis, receptor-mediatedEndodermEndomembrane systemEndonucleases, restrictionEndoplasmic reticulumEndoplasmic reticulum, RoughEndoplasmic reticulum, SmoothEndospermEndosymbiotic theoryEndotoxinEnergyEnergyEnergy couplingEnergy flowEnergy in bondsEnergy transducers, Organisms areEnergy, activationEnergy, electrons storeEnergy, heatEngineering, geneticEnhancersEnvelopeEnveloped virusesEnvelopes and capsidsEnvelopes, cellEnvironmentEnvironmental influenceEnzyme activityEnzyme activity, physical effects onEnzyme localizationEnzyme saturationEnzyme specificityEnzyme-mediated catalysis, overviewEnzymesEnzymes, restrictionEnzyme-substrate complexEpistasisEquilibrial populationsEquilibrium and disequilibrium, Coupling movement toward chemicalEquilibrium, chemicalEquilibrium, Harnessing movement toward chemicalEquilibrium, punctuatedEquivalence, genomicERER, roughER, smootherectus, HomoEssential elementsEthologyETSEucaryotic gene anatomyEucaryotic segregation of transcription and translationEuchromatinEuglenozoa, KingdomEukaryoteEukaryote control of gene expression, an overviewEukaryotes = monophyletic domainEukaryotes, origin ofEumetazoa versus parazoaEvaporative coolingEvents not happening, calculating forEvidence of DarwinismEvolutionEvolution in real timeEvolution of metabolic pathwaysEvolution of populations, summaryEvolution of Populations, TheEvolution of Seed Plants, Plant Diversity IIEvolution, culturalEvolution, lack ofEvolution, molecularEvolution, non-DarwinianExclusion, competitiveExclusion, hydrophobicExergonic and endergonic reactions, CouplingExergonic reactionExocytosisExons and intronsExoskeletonExotoxinsExpands permeability but still selectively permeableExpected ratios, deviation fromExploitative competitionExplosion, CambrianExponential growthExpression vectorExtant populationsExtinction, massExtracellular matrix

F F F F FF1 generationF2 generationFacilitated diffusionFactors, transcriptionFacultative anaerobesFacultative anaerobesFAD reductionFADH2FamilyFamily HominidaeFAPFatsFatty acidFatty acid, saturatedFatty acid, unsaturatedFecundityFeedback inhibitionFermentationFern, life cycle ofFertilizationFibers, spindleFilamentFilaments, IntermediateFilial, first, generationFilial, second, generationFinal electron acceptorFinal electron acceptor, organicFinned, fleshy, fishFinned, ray, fishFirst filial generationFish, bonyFish, CartilaginousFish, fleshy-finnedFish, jawlessFish, lobe-finnedFish, modernFish, ray-finnedFission, binaryFit, inducedFitness, DarwinianFitness, inclusiveFitness, relativeFive-kingdom systemFixed action patternsFixed alleleFixed locusFixing nitrogenFlaccidityFlagellaFlagellaFlagellatesFlatwormsFleshy-finned fishFlippingFlowering plantsFlowersFlowers in more detailFluid mosaic modelFluid, two-dimensionalFluidity of membrane proteinsFlukesFolding, proteinFood chainFood vacuoles and phagocytosisFood webFootForagingForaging, optimalForaminiferaForamsForces, noncovalentFork, replicationForm follows functionFossil record, TheFossilizationFossilsFossils, datingFoundation of biology, Darwinism asFounder effectFour levels of protein structureFragment, restrictionFragments, OkazakiFrame, readingFrameshift mutationFranklin and WilkinsFree ribosomesFrequency of recombinationFrequency, geneFrequency, genotypeFrequency-dependent selectionFrogsFrom Gene to ProteinFruitFruiting bodies, AscomycotaFruits in more detailFunction, form followsFunctional group, aminoFunctional group, carbonylFunctional group, carboxylFunctional group, hydroxylFunctional group, phosphateFunctional group, sulhydrylFunctional groupsFunctional groups, hydrophilicFunctions of membrane proteinsFundamental nicheFungiFungiFungi divisionsFungi, clubFungi, imperfectFungi, sacFungi, ZygoteFungus, generalized life cycleFurrow, cleavage

G G G G GG proteinG2 of interphaseGametangia, AscomycotaGametangiumGametesGametic isolationGametophyteGametophyteGametophyteGap phases of interphaseGastropoda, classGastrulationGel electrophoresisGeneGene anatomy, eucaryoticGene cloningGene expression in eukaryotes, control of, an overviewGene expression, transcriptional control ofGene flowGene frequencyGene poolGene, regulatoryGene, structuralGene, what is it?GeneraGeneralized fungal life cycleGeneralized transductionGeneration timeGeneration, F1Generation, F2Generation, first filialGeneration, PGeneration, second filialGenerations, alternation ofGenesGenetic Basis of Development, TheGenetic bottleneckGenetic driftGenetic engineeringGenetic mappingGenetic recombinationGenetic structureGenetic variationGenetic variationGeneticsGenetics, molecularGenetics, populationGenomeGenome typesGenomic equivalenceGenomic imprintingGenotypeGenotype (properties of or impacting on)Genotype frequencies from allele frequencies, calculating themGenotype frequencyGenusGenus AustralopithecusGenus HomoGeographical barriersGeographical isolationGeological time scalesGeometric isomerGerm layersGerm lineGerminal layersGiardia lambliaGibbonsGlucoseGlucose stoichiometry (in cellular respiration)Glucose, complete oxidation ofGlucose, not-yet-complete oxidation ofGlycogenGlycolysisGlycolysis, overviewGlycoproteinsGlycosidic linkageGnathostomata, SuperclassGolden algaeGolgi apparatusGolgi, Cis and trans faces of theGorillasG-protein-linked receptorsGradient, electrochemicalGraininessGram-negative bacteriaGram-negative cell wallGram-positive cell wallGranaGreen algaeGriffith, 1928Gross primary productivityGroup selectionGroups, functionalGroups, functional, hydrophilicGrowth, bacterialGrowth, exponentialGrowth, logisticGrowth, populationGrowth, population, limits onGuanineGutGymnosperms

H H H H Hhabilis, HomoHabitat isolationHabituationHagfishHaploidyHardy-Weinberg equilibriumHardy-Weinberg problems, strategies for solvingHarnessing energy to move toward chemical disequilibriumHarnessing movement toward chemical equilibriumHeat energyHelicaseHelix, alphaHelix,doubleHemolymphHerbivoreHereditary material (prokaryotic)HeredityHershey and Chase, 1952HeterochromatinHeteromorphicHeterosporousHeterotrophsHeterotrophsHeterozygosityHeterozygoteHeterozygous advantageHidden recessivesHierarchical study of ecologyHierarchies, dominanceHierarchy of biological orderHigh heat of vaporizationHigh specific heatHigher taxaHirudinea, classHistonesHistory, chemicalHistory, lifeHoldfastHollow, dorsal, nerve cordHomeostasis, maintainingHominidae, familyHominidsHominoidea, superfamilyHominoidsHomo erectusHomo habilisHomo sapiensHomo, genusHomologous alleleHomologous chromosomesHomologous structureHomologuesHomologyHomosporousHomozygosityHomozygoteHomozygous dominantHomozygous recessiveHormonesHorseshoe crabsHostHost rangeHow ATP worksHuman disorders involving changes in chromosome numbersHybrid breakdownHybrid fertility, reducedHybrid viability, reducedHybrid vigorHybrid zoneHybridization, in situHydraHydration shellsHydrocarbonHydrogen atomsHydrogen bondingHydrogen bondsHydrogen ionsHydrogen ions, pumpingHydrolysisHydrolysis, ATPHydrophilicHydrophilic functional groupsHydrophilicityHydrophobicHydrophobic exclusionHydrophobicityHydroxyl groupHydroxyl ionsHypertonicHyphaeHypotonic

I I I I IIce floatsIdenficiation (systematics)Image searchImpact of prokaryotesImperfect fungiImplorationImprintingImprinting, genomicIn situ hybridizationInactivation, mRNAInactivation, proteinInbreedingInclusive fitnessIncomplete dominanceIncomplete metamorphosisIndentification of the proper cloneIndependence, statisticalIndependent assortmentIndependent assortmentIndependent assortmentInduced fitInducerInducible operonInductionInfectious diseaseInheritance, cytoplasmicInheritance, polygenicInhibition, feedbackInhibitorsInhibitors, allostericInhibitors, competitiveInhibitors, noncompetitiveInitiationInorganic phosphateInsecta, classInsectsInsertionInsight learningIntegral membrane proteinsInteractions, interspecificInteractions, noncovalentInterference competitionIntermediate filamentsInterphaseInterphase IInterphase IIInterphase, G2 ofInterphase, gap phases ofInterphase, S phase ofInterphase, Synthesis phase ofInterspecific competitionInterspecific interactionsIntrinsic rate of population increaseIntroduction to Animal EvolutionIntroduction to waterIntrogressionIntrons and exonsInversionInvertebratesInvertebratesInvertebratesInvestment, parentalIon-channel receptorsIonic bondsIons, hydrogenIons, hydroxylIsland biogeographyIsogamyIsolates, peripheralIsolation, behavioralIsolation, gameticIsolation, geographicalIsolation, habitatIsolation, mechanicalIsolation, postzygoticIsolation, reproductive, selection forIsolation, temporalIsomer, geometricIsomersIsomers, structuralIsomorphicIsotonic

J J J J JJawless fishJawsJellyfishJointed appendages

K K K K KKKaryogamyKaryotypeKin selectionKinase, proteinKinase, tyrosine, receptorsKinesisKinetochoreKinetochore microtubulesKingdomKingdom alveolataKingdom ArchezoaKingdom ChromistaKingdom euglenozoaKingdom PlantaeKingdom ProtistaKingdom Protista general characteristicsKingdom Protista phylogenic overviewKingdom rhodophytaKingdom stramenopilaKingdom, eight, systemKingdom, five, systemKlinefelter syndromeKnuckle walkingKreb's cycleK-selected populations

L L L L LLac operonLack of ambiguity in the triplet codeLactoseLagging strandLamarck, Jean BaptisteLamprey, seaLanceletsLandscapes, adaptiveLaw of additionLaw of multiplicationLaw of segregationLayers, germLayers, germinalLeading strandLeaflet, membraneLearningLearning, associativeLearning, insightLearning, observationalLeechesLevel, trophicLichensLife cycleLife cycleLife cycle of a fernLife cycle of a mossLife cycle of a pineLife cycle of an angiospermLife cycle, fungus, generalizedLife cycle, lysogenicLife cycle, lyticLife cycles, algalLife historyLife, origin ofLigandLigase, DNALigase, DNALight reaction of photosynthesisLight, wavelength ofLigninLimited resource, allocation ofLimiting nutrientLimits on population growthLinkageLinkage, sex linkedLinkage, X linkedLinkages, phosphodiesterLinnaeus, CarolusLipid bilayerLipidsLiquid, water as aLobe-finned fishLobstersLocal regulatorLoci (plural of locus)LocusLocus, fixedLogic of Darwinism, TheLogic of origin of lifeLogistic growthLow temperature stabilityLumenLumen protein, secreted protein, and membrane-protein synthesisLyell, CharlesLysogenic life cycleLysosomesLytic life cycle

M M M M MM phaseMacroevolutionMaintaining homeostasisMalariaMalthus, ThomasMaltoseMammalia, classMammalsMantleMapping, geneticMarine wormsMarsupialsMass extinctionMass extinction and adaptive radiationMaterial, hereditary (prokaryotic)Mating behaviorMating systemsMating, assortativeMating, nonrandomMating, randomMatrix, extracellularMaturationMechanical defensesMechanical isolationMechanistic basis of lifeMedusaMegasporeMeiosisMeiosis and Sexual Life CyclesMeiosis IMeiosis IIMeiosis in detailMembraneMembrane asymetryMembrane leafletMembrane potentialMembrane proteinsMembrane proteins, fluidityMembrane proteins, functionsMembrane proteins, integralMembrane proteins, peripheralMembrane Struction and FunctionMembrane, nuclearMembrane, plasmaMembrane-bound organelleMembrane-protein, lumen protein, and secreted protein synthesisMembranes, transport acrossMendel and the Gene IdeaMendel's law of segregationMesodermMessenger RNAMessengers, secondMetabolic pathways, evolution ofMetabolic waterMetabolismMetabolismMetabolism, ArchaebacteriaMetabolism, nitrogenMetamorphosisMetamorphosis, completeMetamorphosis, incompleteMetaphaseMetaphase IMetaphase plateMethionineMethylationMicrobial diseaseMicrobial Models: The Genetics of Viruses and BacteriaMicroevolutionMicrofilamentsMicroorganisms, relevanceMicroorganisms, types ofMicrosporeMicrotubule, mitotic, nomenclatureMicrotubulesMicrotubules, kinetochoreMicrotubules, nonkinetichoreMigrationMigrationMillipedesMimicry, BatesianMimicry, MullerianMissense mutationMitesMitochondriaMitochondriaMitochondrionMitosisMitosis and multicellularityMitotic microtubule nomenclatureMitotic spindleModel organismsModel organisms for the study of developmentModern fishModern synthesisModes of natural selectionModification, descent withMoldsMolecular Basis of Inheritance, TheMolecular biologyMolecular evolutionMolecular geneticsMolecular genetics, central dogma ofMolecular recombinationMolecular systematicsMolecular techniquesMollusca, phylumMollusksMonkeysMonocotsMonocotyledonMonogamousMonohybrid crossMonomerMonophosphate, adenosineMonophyletic domain = EukaryotesMonophyletic taxonMonosaccharidesMonosomicMonosomyMonotremesMorphogenesisMorphological diversity, prokaryoticMorphological species conceptMoss, life cycle ofMotile, protists are mostlyMotilityMoving and timing behaviorsmRNAmRNA activation/inactivationmRNA degradationmRNA processingmRNA, codons are a property ofMullerian mimicryMulticellularity and mitosisMultiple allelesMultiplication, law ofMusclesMuscular, postanal tailMushroomsMutationMutationMutation (. . . and yet the only way to change)Mutation (typically detrimental . . .)Mutation, bacteriaMutation, frameshiftMutation, missenseMutation, nonsenseMutation, pointMutation, silentMutualismMutualismMyceliumMycorrhizaeMyosinMyxomycota

N N N N NNAD+ reductionNAD+ regenerationNADHNADP+ reductionNatural selectionNatural selectionNatural selection, action ofNatural selection, modes ofNature versus nurtureNavigationNegative controlNegative taxisNematoda, phylumNerve cord, dorsal, hollowNet primary productivityNeutral variationNiche, ecologicalNiche, fundamentalNiche, realizedNitrificationNitrogen assimilationNitrogen cycle, TheNitrogen fixingNitrogen metabolismNitrogenous basesNo evolutionNoncompetitive inhibitorsNoncovalent bondsNoncovalent forcesNoncovalent interactionsNon-cyclic electron flow (photosynthesis)Non-Darwinian evolutionNondisjunctionNonkinetochore microtubulesNonrandom matingNonsense codonsNonsense mutationNorm of reactionNot happening, events, calculating forNotochordNot-yet-complete oxidation of glucoseNuclear membraneNucleic acidsNucleoidNucleolusNucleosidesNucleosomeNucleotidesNucleusNumbers, pyramid ofNutrient, limitingNutritional deficienciesNutritional patternsNuture versus nature

O O O O OO2 reductionObligate aerobesObligate anaerobesObligate tool usersObservational learningOilOkazaki fragmentsOligochaeta, classOligosaccharidesOne gene-one polypeptide hypothesisOogamyOomycotaOpen circulatory systemOperant conditioningOperatorOperonOperon modelOperon, corepressedOperon, inducibleOperon, lacOperon, trpOpportunistic populationsOptimal foragingOrderOrder, biological, hierarch ofOrganelleOrgangutansOrganic compound, oxidation ofOrganic final electron acceptorOrganismal ecologyOrganisms are energy transducersOrganisms, modelOrganisms, model, for the study of developmentOrganization and Control of Eukaryotic Genomes, TheOrientationOrigin of eukaryotesOrigin of life, logic ofOrigin of life, TheOrigin of self replication, scenario forOrigin of species (C. Darwin)Origin of Species, TheOrigin, prokaryoticOrigins of Eukaryotic Diversity, TheOrigins of Metabolic Diversity, Prokaryotes and theOrigins of replicationOsmosisOssificationOsteichthyes, classOvaryOverviewOvuleOxidationOxidation of carbonOxidation of glucose (complete)Oxidation of organic compoundsOxidation of pyruvateOxidation of water (photosynthesis)Oxidation-reduction reactionsOxidative phosphorylation (1)Oxidative phosphorylation (2)Oxidized carbonOxidized FADH2Oxidized NADHOxidizing agentOxygen requirements

P P P P PP generationP sitePairing, basePaleontologyParaphyletic taxaParaphyletic taxon = protistaParasitismParazoa versus eumetazoaParental investmentParental typePartitioning, resoursePassive transportPassive versus active transportPathway, signal transductionPatterns of dispersionPatterns, fixed actionPCRPedigree analysisPedigree graphic representationPeptide bondPerfect organisms, does (can) evolution fashion one?Period, criticalPeripheral isolatesPeripheral membrane proteinsPermeability, selectivePetalspHpH bufferPhaeophytaPhagePhage, proPhagocytosisPhagocytosis and food vacuolesPharyngeal slitsPhenotypePhenotype (properties of or impacting on)Phenotype comparisonPhosphatase, proteinPhosphate groupPhosphate, inorganicPhosphodiester linkagesPhospholipidPhospholipidsPhosphorous cyclePhosphorylation, oxidative (1)Phosphorylation, oxidative (2)Phosphorylation, substrate-levelPhotoautotrophPhotoheterotrophPhotophosphorylationPhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis, light reaction ofPhotosynthesis, overall reactionPhotosynthesis, two reactions ofPhotosystemsPhototaxisPhototrophsPhylaPhylogenic overview (Kingdom Protista)PhylogeniesPhylogeny: chordate through tetrapodPhylumPhylum AnnelidaPhylum ArthropodaPhylum chordataPhylum CnidariaPhylum EchinodermataPhylum MolluscaPhylum NematodaPhylum PlatyhelminthesPhylum PoriferaPhylum RotiferaPhysical distance analogPhysical effects on enzyme activityPiPilotingPine, life cycle ofPinocytosisPlacentalsPlacodermi, classPlanktonicPlant defenses against predationPlant Diversity I: The Colonization of LandPlant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed PlantsPlant divisionsPlant reproductionPlant terrestrial adaptationsPlantaePlantae, kingdomPlantsPlants, floweringPlasma membranePlasma membrane, attachments toPlasmidsPlasmids, RPlasmodial slime moldsPlasmodium spp.PlasmogamyPlasmolysisPlasticity of phenotypePlatyhelminthes, phylumPlatypusesPlayPleated sheetPleiotropyPloidyPoint mutationPolar covalent bondPolar molecule, water is aPolarity (5' to 3'), DNAPollenPolyandryPolychaeta, classPolygamousPolygenic inheritancePolygynyPolymerPolymerase chain reactionPolymerase, DNAPolymerase, RNAPolymerizationPolymorphismPolymorphism, restriction fragment lengthPolymorphisms, balancedPolypPolypeptidePolyphyletic taxaPolyphyletic taxa = protistaPolyploidyPolyps, coralPolysaccharidePool, genePopulationPopulation densityPopulation EcologyPopulation ecologyPopulation ecologyPopulation geneticsPopulation growthPopulation growth, Limits onPopulation increase, intrinsic rate ofPopulation sizePopulations, equilibrialPopulations, extantPopulations, K-selectedPopulations, opportunisticPopulations, r-selectedPorifera, phylumPorkaryotes, impact ofPositive controlPositive taxisPostanal, muscular tailPosteriorPost-transcriptional controlPost-translational polypeptide modificationPostzygotic isolationPotential energyPotential, bioticPredationPredation and species diversityPredation, animal defenses againstPredation, defense againstPredation, plant defenses againstPrezygotic reproductive barriersPrimary consumerPrimary ecological successionPrimary electron acceptorPrimary producerPrimary productivityPrimary productivity, grossPrimary productivity, netPrimary structurePrimasePrimatesPriming, RNAPrinciple of allocationProabilities, range ofProbability theoryProbability theory: calculating for events not happeningProbability theory: genetics practice problemsProbability theory: law of additionProbability theory: Law of multiplicationProbability theory: range of probabilitiesProbability theory: statistical independenceProblems with the biological species conceptProcessing, mRNAProducer, primaryProductProduct of catabolism: ATPProductivity, gross primaryProductivity, net primaryProductivity, primaryProductivity, pyramid ofProductivity, secondaryProkaryoteProkaryotes and the Origins of Metabolic DiversityProkaryotic morphological diversityProkaryotic originPrometaphasePromiscuousPromoterPromoter bindingProofreadingProphageProphage and diseaseProphaseProphase IProsimiansProteinProtein activation/inactivationProtein degradationProtein foldingProtein kinaseProtein phosphataseProtein structure, four levels ofProtein subunitProtein, catabolite activatorProtein, single-strand bindingProteinsProteins, chaperoneProteins, integral membraneProteins, introductionProteins, peripheral membraneProteins, transportProteoglycanProtista = paraphyletic taxonProtista = polyphyletic taxaProtista, KingdomProtista, Kingdom, general characteristicsProtista, Kingdom, phylogenic overviewProtistsProtists are important aquatic producersProtists are mostly aerobic respiratorsProtists are mostly aerobic respiratorsProtists are mostly aquaticProtists are mostly chemoheterotrophsProtists are mostly motileProtists display a great diversity of reproductive strategiesProtocellsProton pumpProton-motive forceProtons, pumpingProtostomes versus deuterostomesProvirusProvirus and diseaseProximate causationPseudocoelomatesPseudopodiaPterophyta, divisionPump, protonPump, sodium-potassiumPumping hydrogen ionsPumping protonsPunctuated equilibriumPunishment, avoidance ofPunnett squarePurinesPyramid of numbersPyramid of productivityPyramid, biomassPyrimidinesPyruvate oxidation

Q Q Q Q QQuantitative charactersQuaternary structure

R R R R RR plasmidsrmaxRadiataRadiata versus bilateriaRadiation, adaptiveRandom fertilizationRandom matingRange of probabilitiesRate, birthRate, deathRatio 9:3:3:1Ratio, sexRay-finned fishRaysReactantReaction centerReaction normReaction, EndergonicReaction, ExergonicReactions, reversibleReading frameReal time, evolution inRealized nicheRearrangement, chromosomalReceptionReceptor-mediated endocytosisReceptors, G-protein-linkedReceptors, tyrosine-kinaseRecessive allelesRecessive, homozygousRecessive, sex-linked afflictionRecessives, hiddenReciprocal altruismReciprocal translocationRecombinantRecombinant DNARecombinationRecombination, frequency ofRecombination, geneticRecombination, molecularRed algaeRedox reactionsReduced FADReduced hybrid fertilityReduced hybrid viabilityReduced NAD+Reducing agentReducing atmosphereReductionReduction of O2Redundancy of triplet codeRegeneration of NAD+Regulator, localRegulator, systemicRegulatorsRegulatory geneRelatedness, coefficient ofRelative datingRelative fitnessReleaserRelevance of microorganismsReplicating haploidReplication forkReplication fork, a summaryReplication, origins ofRepresenting chemical bondsRepressorReproductionReproduction isolation, behavioralReproduction, plantReproductive barriersReproductive barriers, breakdown ofReproductive barriers, geographicalReproductive barriers, prezygoticReproductive I.Isolation, mechanicalReproductive isolation, gameticReproductive isolation, geographicalReproductive isolation, habitatReproductive isolation, postzygoticReproductive isolation, selection forReproductive isolation, temporalReptilesReptilia, classResource partitioningResource, limited, allocationRespiration, cellular, overviewResponseRestriction endonucleasesRestriction enzymesRestriction fragmentRestriction fragment length polymorphismRestriction siteRetrovirusesReverse transcriptaseReverse transcriptionReversible interactionsReversible reactionsRFLPRhizopodaRhodophytaRhodophyta, kingdomRhythmic behaviorsRibonucleic acidRibosomal RNARibosome A siteRibosome E siteRibosome P siteRibosomesRibosomesRibosomes, boundRibosomes, freeRing formRNARNARNA polymeraseRNA polymerases, availability toRNA primingRNA worldRNA, messengerRNA, ribosomalRNA, transferRotifera, phylumRough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER)RoundwormsrRNAr-selected populations

S S S S SS phase of interphaseSac fungiSalamanderssapiens, HomoSarcopterygii, subclassSaturated fatty acidSaturation, enzymeScallopsScenario for allopatric speciationScenario for the origin of self replicationScorpionsSea anemoneSea lampreySea slugsSea squirtsSea starsSearch imageSeaweedSecond filial generationSecond messengersSecondary compoundsSecondary consumerSecondary ecological successionSecondary growthSecondary productivitySecondary structureSecreted protein, lumen protein, and membrane-protein synthesisSeedsSegmentationSegregation of allelesSegregation of transcription and translation in eukaryotesSelection for reproductive isolationSelection, artificialSelection, directionalSelection, disruptiveSelection, diversifyingSelection, frequency-dependentSelection, groupSelection, kinSelection, naturalSelection, naturalSelection, sexualSelection, speciesSelection, stabilizingSelective permeabilitySelectively permeable (still) but with expanded permeabilitySemiconservative DNA replicationSensory organsSepalsSeptaSequence, baseSequences, signalSequencing, DNASex chromosomesSex ratioSex, bacteriaSex-linkageSex-linked affliction, dominantSex-linked affliction, recessiveSexual reproductionSexual selectionShared Derived CharacteristicsSharksSheet, beta-pleatedSheet, pleatedShells, hydrationShrimpSign stimulusSignal amplificationSignal receptorSignal sequencesSignal transductionSignaling, cell, three stages ofSilent mutationSingle-strand binding proteinSister chromatid pairsSister chromatidsSite,activeSite,catalyticSize, populationSlime molds, cellularSlime molds, plasmodialSlits, pharyngealSlugsSmooth endoplasmic reticulumSnailsSocial behaviorSociobiologySodium-potassium pumpSoluteSolutionSolution, aqueousSolventSolvent, water as aSolvents moving down concentration gradientsSomaSomatic cellsSomitesSouthern blottingSpecialized transductionSpeciationSpeciation, allopatricSpeciation, allopatric, scenario forSpeciation, sympatricSpeciesSpeciesSpecies concept, biologicalSpecies concept, biological, problems withSpecies concept, ecologicalSpecies concept, morphologicalSpecies diversity and predationSpecies selectionSpecific heat, highSpecificity, enzymeSpidersSpindleSpindle fibersSpindle, mitoticSpliceosomeSpongesSporangiumSporeSporophyteSporophyteSporophyteSporophyte as dominant generationSporozoansSquare, PunnettStabilizing selectionStamenStanding crop biomassStarchStart codonStatistical independenceStem cellsSteroidsSticky endsStigmaStimulous, signStipeStoichiometry, glucose (in cellular respiration)StomaStomataStop codonsStoring energy using electronsStramenopila, KingdomStrand complementarityStrand complementarityStrand, laggingStrand, leadingStrand, templateStrands, antiparallelStrategies for solving Hardy-Weinberg problemsStrategies for successStromaStructural geneStructural isomerStructure and Function of Macromolecules, TheStructure of DNAStructure, ageStructure, geneticStructure, homologousStructure, primaryStructure, quaternaryStructure, secondaryStructure, tertiaryStructure, trophicStructure, vestigialStyleSubclass ActinopterygiiSubclass SarcopterygiiSubcloningSuborder AnthropoideaSubphylum CephalochordataSubphylum CheliceriformesSubphylum CrustaceaSubphylum TrilobitomorphaSubphylum UniramiaSubphylum UrochordataSubphylum VertebrataSubspeciesSubstrateSubstrate-level phosphorylationSubunitSubunit, proteinSuccess, strategies forSuccession, ecologicalSuccession, primary ecologicalSuccession, secondary, ecologicalSucroseSugarsSulfhydryl groupSummary, the evolution of populationsSuperclass GnathostomataSuperfamily HominoideaSurface tensionSurvivorship curvesSurvivorship curves, Type ISurvivorship curves, Type IISurvivorship curves, Type IIISwim bladderSymbiontSymbiosisSympatric speciationSynapsisSyndrome, downsyndrome, KlinefelterSyndrome, TurnerSyngamySyngamySynthase, ATPSynthesis phase of interphaseSynthesis, modernSynthesis: (5' to 3'), DNASystem, eight-kingdomSystem, endomembraneSystem, five-kingdomSystem, three-domainSystematicsSystematics, molecularSystems, mating

T T T T TTail, muscular, postanalTapewormsTaxaTaxa, higherTaxa, paraphyleticTaxa, polyphyleticTaxa, polyphyletic = protistaTaxisTaxisTaxonTaxon, monophyleticTaxon, paraphyletic = protistaTaxonomyTechniques, molecularTechnology, DNATelomeraseTelomereTelophaseTelophase ITemperate virusTemperature stability, lowTemperature-dependence of fluidityTemplate strandTemporal isolationTerminationTermination of transcriptionTerrestrial adaptations, plantsTerritorialityTertiary consumersTertiary structureTestcrossTetradTetrapod through chrodate phylogenyTetrapodsThallusThe Cell CycleThe Chemical Context of LifeThe Chromosomal Basis of InheritanceThe Evolution of PopulationsThe fossil recordThe Genetic Basis of DevelopmentThe logic of DarwinismThe Molecular Basis of InheritanceThe Organization and Control of Eukaryotic GenomesThe Origin of SpeciesThe Origins of Eukaryotic DiversityThe replication fork, a summaryThe Structure and Function of MacromoleculesTheory, endosymbioticThere is no punctuation between codonsThermodynamicsThorax (insect)Three stages of cell signalingThree-domain systemThylakoid spaceThylakoidsThymineTicksTime scales, geologicalTime, generationTiming and moving behaviorsTissue, vascularTissue, woodyTonicityTonicity and animal cellsTracheaTracing PhylogenyTraitTraits, autosomal dominantTraits, autosomal recessiveTrans and cis faces of the golgiTranscription factorTranscription factorsTranscription in detailTranscription, reverseTranscription, termination inTranscriptional control of gene expressionTranscription-introductionTransductionTransduction, generalizedTransduction, signalTransduction, specializedTransdutionTransfer RNA (1)Transfer RNA (2)TransformationTransition stateTranslation in detailTranslational (post) polypeptide modificationTranslational, post, controlTranslation-introductionTranslocationTranslocation, reciprocalTransport across membranesTransport proteinsTransport vesiclesTransport, activeTransport, cotransportTransport, passiveTree, universalTriacylglycerolTricarboxylic acid cycleTriglycerideTrihybrid (and higher) crossesTrilobitesTrilobitomorpha, subphylumTriphosphate, adenosineTriplet code, lack of ambiguity inTriplet code, redundancy ofTriplet code, universalTriploblastictrisomicTrisomytRNATrophic levelTrophic structureTrp operonTrue breedingTube within a tubeTubulinTunicatesTurgidityTurner syndromeTwo reactions of photosynthesisTwo-dimensional fluidType I survivorship curvesType II survivorship curvesType III survivorship curvesType, parentalType, recombinantTypes of microorganismsTyrosine-kinase receptors

U U U U UUltimate causationUmveltUniramia, subphylumUniversal ancestor, TheUniversal treeUniversal triplet codeUnsaturated fatty acidUracilUrochordata, subphylum

V V V V VVacuolesValence electronsVaporization, high heat ofVariationVariation, geneticVariation, neutralVariety of sexual life cyclesVascular tissueVector, cloningVector, expressionVentralVertebrata, subphylumVertebrate Evolution and DiversityVesicles, TransportVestigial structuresVigor, hybridViral characteristicsVirus distinguishing featuresVirus, proVirus, temperateViruses, envelopedVisceral mass

W W W W WWallace, AlfredWater and the Fitness of the EnvironmentWater as a solventWater is a liquidWater is a polar moleculeWater moldsWater, introduction toWater, metabolicWater, oxidation of (photosynthesis)Waterfall analogyWatson and Crick, 1953Wavelength of lightWaxy cuticleWeak bondsWhat is a gene?WhorlsWhy adaptWilkins and FranklinWobbleWoody tissueWorms, earthWorms, leechesWorms, marine

X X X X XX-linkageXOXXXXXYXYY

Y Y Y Y YYeasts

Z Z Z Z ZZone, adaptiveZooflagellatesZoomastigophoraZygomycota, divisionZygoteZygote fungi

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